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The following pages contain brief descriptions
of many of the apple varieties available from our nursery. Use the links below to view other description pages.
Apple Variety Descriptions
Apple Variety Descriptions (M-R)
Apple Variety Descriptions (S-Y)
Father Abram, Father Abraham, Red Abram, Abram's Pippin) - Although
listed in 1755 in a Virginia newspaper, the true origin of Abram is unclear. It is a very
fine keeper and was once widely grown in North Carolina, Kentucky, and Virginia. Noted for
its fine cider qualities, its flavor and quality improve greatly in storage. Fruit is
small to medium in size with waxy, greenish-yellow skin shaded with dull red and sometimes
almost gray in appearance. The yellowish-white flesh is fine-grained and tender with a
spicy to sweet flavor. Ripens late fall and keeps until April or May.
Pearmain (Norfolk Pippin, Hanging Pearmain) -
In 1826, Robert Adams introduced this fine English dessert apple as Norfolk Pippin. Other
sources indicate this apple originated in the county of Herefordshire, England and was
locally known as Hanging Pearmain. The apple known as Adams Pearmain today is a
medium-sized, very conical fruit with dull crimson-red skin covered with a fine gray-brown
russet coat. The creamy white flesh is crisp, tender and firm with a dry, nutty flavor.
Ripens mid-late October.
Alexander ( Emperor Alexander,
Grand Alexander, Kaiser Alexander) - Alexander is one of several
hundred apples of Russian origin brought into this country in the early 1800's in an
attempt to find cold-hardy trees suitable for commercial production. The true origins are
unclear, but it was known to have been introduced into England from Russia in 1817. Once a
widely popular variety in the South, it was eventually replaced by its even more popular
offspring, Wolf River. Fruit can be large with thick, tough, greenish skin, mostly covered
with red and carmine stripes and splashes. The white flesh is firm, coarse, and crisp.
Ripens August to September and is not a good keeper.
|Allum (Alum, Hallum, Rockingham Red) - Allum is thought to have originated in
Rockingham County, North Carolina in the 1840's. Favored for its fine storage qualities.
Fruit is medium sized with deep red skin and tender, crisp and juicy white flesh. Flavor
is rather tart. Ripens November to December.
Beauty (Beauty of America, Sterling Beauty)
- Arose in Sterling, Massachusetts around the 1850's, but the exact date of origin is
unknown. It is a large, dark-red apple, sweet and aromatic with slightly chewy flesh. The
flavor has often been described as vinous. It is regarded as a high-quality fruit and is a
very productive, annual apple. Ripens late September to October. Fruit Picture
|American Summer Pearmain (American Pearmain,
Early Summer Pearmain, Watkins Early, Summer Pearmain) - A very old
variety dating to 1816 or earlier. Apple is medium sized and somewhat oblong in shape.
Skin is yellow striped with red. This is an early blooming variety and matures late July
Black - Originated from a Winesap seedling in
an orchard in Bentonville, Arkansas in 1870. Arkansas Black is a beautiful dark red to
almost black apple and considered to be one of the best storage apples. The fruit ripens
late November and is rock-hard when harvested, but softens and improves in flavor in
storage. (Please note that Arkansas Black is a triploid variety and, as such, produces sterile pollen and thus is unable to pollinate other apple trees.) Fruit is medium-sized and slightly conical in shape. Yellow flesh is firm,
fine-grained, crisp, moderately juicy, and sprightly subacid in flavor.
Sweet - In 1905, Henry Grabin
of Scott County, Arkansas sent the first samples of Arkansas Sweet to the USDA, thus
bringing this fine apple to the publics attention. It was believed to be a lost
variety until 1993 when we discovered it still being grown by John Kenyon of Lacon,
Illinois. Fruit is medium-sized with yellow skin overlaid with crimson and darker red
stripes. The whitish flesh is crisp, sweet, and crunchy. Ripens early winter and is a fair
Kernel - An
apple of English origin and one of the best high-quality dessert apples available. It
originated about 1700 in the gardens of Thomas Ashmead of Gloucester, England. Though not
considered an attractive apple, the tremendous flavor more than compensates for its
appearance. The flavor has been variously described as "strong, sweet-sharp
intense", "sweet yet a little acid" and "mouth-puckering." The
apples flavor is indeed strong and intense when first picked, but sweetens and
mellows greatly after several weeks in storage. The yellowish-green skin has an occasional
light-orange blush, and is almost completely covered with a fine gray-brown russet
coating. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp, firm and juicy. Ripens September to October.
- According to Masters (2005), this variety performs well
in the Piedmont of South Carolina. Originated as local apple in Chatham
County, North Carolina. Fruit begins ripening early in the season and
continues for two to three weeks. One of the best early season apples, Aunt
Rachel is a medium to large, red-striped apple covered with prominent light
dots. Very attractive with very fine flavor. Ripens July - early August.
In Lee Calhoun's
wonderful book, Old Southern Apples, he recalls the day in
March 1989, when he received a letter from Mr. Charles W. Nolen of Franklin,
North Carolina, telling him about the old Bald Mountain trees in his
orchard. This was very surprising to Lee as there was very little historical
information regarding the history and origin of this apple. According to Mr.
Nolen, Bald Mountain originated as a seedling on Warrior Bald Mountain in
Macon County, North Carolina when George Crawford, one of the first settlers
in the area, found the wild tree already growing there. The only description
previously known about this apple was from a 1903 meeting of the Georgia
State Horticultural Society where it was noted the apples had been brought
to the state for the last eight years from North Carolina. Fruit is
medium-sized, roundish to almost conical in shape. It has light green skin
with irregular broken stripes of dark red on the sunny side. The
greenish-yellow flesh is juicy fine-grained with a pleasant subacid flavor.
Ripens in the winter in the mountains, October in warmer areas and is a good
Rosenapfel, Baldwin's Rother Pippin, Red Baldwin Pippin, Woodpecker, Butters, Steeles Red Winter) - Once one of the largest
selling commercial varieties in the northeast, Baldwin was replaced by McIntosh and other
varieties when several million Baldwin trees were killed by a series of bitter winters
beginning in 1918. Discovered as a seedling in 1740 by John Ball in Lowell, Massachusetts,
it soon became immensely popular in New England. Fruit is medium to large in size with
tough yellow skin nearly covered with dark red and crimson. The yellowish-white flesh is
firm, crisp, and juicy. Ripens September in warmer regions, November in colder areas.
Keeps well into March and April when mountain grown.
Belmont (Belmont Late, Gate, Gait, Kelley White, Mamma Beam, Mamma Bean, Waxen Apple. White) - Belmont is an outstanding apple which might remind you of Cox's Orange Pippin with its high quality flavor. This attractive apple originated in the garden of a Mrs. Beam of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and was eventually moved to Belmont County, Ohio, where it gained a well-deserved popularity. The fruit is medium to large in size, mostly round in shape. The skin is thick, smooth and waxen with a clear yellow background with a slight reddish-orange blush. The creamy yellow flesh is crisp, tender, juicy and subacid in flavor. Ripens late September to early October.
Fruit Picture Bloom Picture
Baltimore Red, Baltimore Red Streak, Funkhouser, Kentucky Red Streak,
New York Pippin, Kentucky Pippin, Carolina Red Streak,
Victoria Red, Victoria Pippin) - Famous old southern apple noted for its rapid growth
and excellent keeping qualities. Originated in the South in the 1800's and
was a very important commercial variety. Medium size with waxy, bright yellow skin mottled
with dark and bright red blushing.
Benum, Brown, Yearry, Nat Ewing) - Benham originated in Tennessee in the
late 1800's and soon became widespread throughout Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky and
North Carolina. An excellent apple for freezing or drying as the cut fruit is slow to turn
brown. Fruit is medium in size, roundish to slightly conical, with very thin
greenish-yellow skin with an occasional red blush. Flesh is yellowish, tender, juicy and
fine-grained. Ripens July to August.
(Fail-Me-Never) - An early season variety originating in Dedham, Massachusetts around 1832. A high-quality dessert apple with smooth yellowish-orange skin mostly covered with bright red and deep carmine striping. The yellow flesh is fine-grained, crisp and juicy, light, fairly soft, with a mild sweet flavor. The skin is noticeably greasy. The fruit does not store well. Ripens July to August.
Bentley Sweet) - Although
mentioned in nursery catalogs in 1845, the exact origin of
Bentley’s Sweet is unknown, but probably arose in Virginia in the
early part of the 19th century.
It is known as an intensely sweet apple with extremely long-keeping qualities. Skin is
greenish-yellow with stripes and splashes of light and dark red. The yellowish-white flesh
is fine-grained, crisp, firm, juicy, and very sweet. Ripens late fall to early winter and
keeps until April or May.
- An extremely attractive local apple originating in Yancey County, NC, and previously considered extinct until a tree was discovered in Ashe County in 1996 by our good friend and fellow apple collector, Danny Harvey of Lansing. We were able to add this wonderful apple to our collection in 2005 and enjoyed the first fruit in 2008. A tree full of these beautiful apples is indeed a sight to behold! Apple is medium-sized, roundish-conical with smooth, very dark red skin. The pale greenish to yellowish flesh is very crisp and moderately juicy with occasional red streaks under the skin. Wonderful sweet-tangy, vinous flavor. Ripens mid-September to early October.
Favorite (Early Bevan, Striped June, Bivins)- A
once popular early summer apple, Bevans Favorite originated in Salem, New Jersey in
1842. It became a Southern favorite and was widely distributed in North Carolina as late
as the 1930's before fading into obscurity. Lee Calhoun of Pittsboro, NC is credited with
rediscovering the apple in 1985 when he found a lone tree in Alamance County,
NC. Fruit is
medium in size, slightly conical with greenish-yellow skin with broad red striping mostly
on the sunny side. The white flesh is crisp, moderately juicy with a fine-grained texture.
Ripens in July and is not a good keeper.
(Beitigheimer, Red Bietigheimer) - A very old, very large and colorful
apple of German origin. Bietigheimer was first described in Europe in 1598, where it was
known as Roter Stettiner. It was brought into this country in the 1880's. Because of its
large size and coarse tough flesh, it is considered a cooking apple. Roundish to slightly
conical in shape, with pale yellow skin overlaid with dark and light red striping. Ripens
August to September, and not a good keeper.
|Bismarck (Bismark, Prince Bismarck) - The origin of Bismarck is uncertain, but
thought to have arisen in Canterbury, New Zealand and brought into Germany in the 1800's
where it was named for German Chancellor, Prince Bismarck. One unique feature is its
dwarfish growing habit, making it an easily managed tree for the home orchard. Large to
very large fruit with golden-yellow skin and red striping. The flesh is white, crisp and
juicy. Ripens August to September.
- A wonderful apple and quite stunning in appearance. Although not mentioned in any old catalogs or other apple literature, it is believed to have originated in Pennsylvania. A very dependable annual bearer of dark red apples which hang well on the tree. Fruit is large to very large with varying shades of
red and deep maroon depending on the amount of sun exposure. The yellowish flesh is crisp,
fine-grained and very juicy with a refreshing tangy-sweet flavor. Ripens September to October.
Spitz, Crow's Egg, Gilliflower, Sheepnose, Red
Gilliflower) - A very old variety dating to the 1700's and originating in the Northeast,
probably Connecticut. Listed in southern catalogs as Black Gilliflower or Red Gilliflower,
many apple growers believe this apple is the same as the old southern apple, Crows
Egg. Fruit is medium to large, distinctly conical or tapered in shape, with dark red skin
overlaid with faint red striping. The greenish-white flesh is firm, coarse, and moderately
juicy, quickly becoming dry when overripe. An aromatic apple ripening in October to
(Mammoth Blacktwig, Paragon, Arkansas) - There is
much controversy concerning the origin and true name of Blacktwig. Once thought to be a
synonym of Winesap, over the years confusion has reigned regarding its relationship to
Mammoth Blacktwig and Paragon, all of which are thought to be seedlings of Winesap. Today
it is somewhat accepted that Mammoth Blacktwig and Paragon are separate varieties lumped
under the catch-all name of Blacktwig, but that depends on with whom you speak. Despite
the arguments, Mammoth Blacktwig and Paragon are almost identical in appearance. Both are
medium to large with greenish-yellow skin mostly covered with dark red and indistinct dark
red striping. The flesh is yellow, firm, and juicy with a mild subacid flavor reminiscent
of Winesap. Ripens September to October and is a good keeper. (For a more in-depth
discussion of these varieties, see Calhouns excellent book, Old Southern Apples.)
Orange, Blenheim Pippin, Gloucester Pippin, Orange
Pippin, Prince of Wales, Ward's Pippin, Woodstock, Woodstock Pippin) - A very lovely apple which originated in 1740 at Woodstock near
Blenheim in Oxfordshire, England. It first began to receive recognition in 1818 and by the
1820's was widespread throughout Europe and America. Fruit is large and has a somewhat
flattened appearance. The skin is dull greenish-yellow and mostly flushed with speckled
reddish-orange. Flesh is creamy white, coarse, firm, and moderately juicy. Ripens October
Pearmain - An old apple of uncertain origin,
but probably American. It was noted by the Royal Horticultural Society of London in 1893
and widely grown in New York and New England in the 19th century. A large, slightly
conical fruit with red and purplish-red striping and covered with a fine blue bloom. The
delicate creamy-white flesh is tender, sweet and slightly aromatic. Ripens October to
Seedling - An old English variety dating to the
1700's. An excellent baking apple that quickly gained favor in this country for its tangy,
sharp flavor and outstanding cider-making qualities. Fruit is very large and
greenish-yellow in color with light red striping. Harvested from October through November
and considered a fair keeper.
- A fine apple of the Deep South brought to our notice by our friend
and fellow apple collector, Joyce Neighbors of Gadsden, Alabama. The tree originated by a
roadside in southern Alabama around 1945 where a road crew took notice of this fine
flavored and attractive fruit. This is a good variety for growing in warmer climates
as it requires a relatively low number of chilling hours. A large, mostly red fruit
ripening August to September.
Bloom Picture Fruit Picture
- The name for this apple derives from the distinctive
"brown eye" at the base of the apple. Brown Snout was discovered in 1850 on
the farm of Mr. Dent of Yarkhill, Herefords in England. This cider apple
produces a sweet, slightly astringent juice and makes a mild to medium
bittersweet cider. A self fertile tree which is susceptible to fireblight.
Fruit is small, greenish to greenish-yellow in color with patches of russet
and a brown russet eye at the calyx end of the fruit. Ripens in October to
November depending on location. Fruit
Apple - A vintage English cider
apple which arose in south Devon in the early 1900's. It is a very widely
planted variety in Europe and is esteemed for its tangy, scented, fruity
cider. The medium, dark red fruit has a crisp, clean flavor. The flesh is
often stained with red. It has a tendency to be a biennial bearer. Ripens in
Once believed to be extinct, this unique North Carolina apple was
rediscovered several years ago by that dedicated apple hunter, Tom Brown, of
Clemmons, NC. Bryson's Seedling originated in Jackson County, NC, and was
first described in a 1904 catalog from the Maryland Nursery Company of
Baltimore. Fruit is very broad, enormous and very flattened in appearance.
The rough skin is mostly greenish-yellow and overlaid with light and dark
red. The greenish-white flesh is firm, crunchy and juicy. Ripens in
late October and stores extraordinarily well, keeping firm and solid well
Byers, Byers Red, Queen, Henshaw, King, Ox-eye, Fall Queen,
Fall Queen of Kentucky, Frankfort Queen, Iola, Ladies
Favorite of Tennessee, Large Summer Pearmain, Jackson's Red, Lexington
Queen, Byers Red, Equinetelee, Red Horse, Red
Gloria Mundi, Winter Cheese, Winter Queen) - Described by Lee Calhoun as the
"quintessential Southern apple", Buckingham has been grown in the South for over
200 years. Its history is unclear, but believed to have originated in Louisa Co., Virginia
in the late 1700's. Fruit is large and slightly conical with thick, smooth yellow
skin mostly covered with dark red striping. The yellow flesh is tender and juicy with a
sprightly subacid flavor. Ripens in the early fall in the mountains.
|Buff (Granny Buff, Mountain Sprout) - Originated in Haywood Co., North Carolina
in the 1850's. A large, irregular-shaped apple with light yellow skin and random red
striping. Favored for cooking, drying, and apple butter. White flesh is tender with a
subacid flavor. Fruit
(Bullett, Green Abram, North Carolina Greening) - Bullet originated
in the South in the 1800's and was sold by several North Carolina nurseries from the
1850's to the early 1900's. Lee Calhoun says Bullet may be identical to North Carolina
Keeper, another fine old Southern heirloom variety. Fruit medium sized with greenish skin,
mostly covered with stripes and streaks of dull red and gray. Flesh is white and firm with
a brisk flavor. Ripens very late Fall and is an excellent keeper.
- The origin of this mid-summer apple is a bit unclear
and is often confused with Buncombe, a large red apple which originated in
North Carolina. Fruit is large and blocky
with uneven ribs. Smooth
covered with brownish dots.
Fine flavor but tends to drop from the tree prematurely. Flesh yellowish,
firm, juicy and sweet. Ripens
August to September.
Hill - In 2000, we were contacted
by the daughter of Danny and Ginny Lang of Cortland, NY, and told of an old apple tree
growing on their property known to them as Bunker Hill. We were extremely excited as we
knew Bunker Hill was a very old apple which originated in nearby Dryden, NY sometime in
the 1800's but which had disappeared many years ago. We were able to visit the Langs
and collect a handful of cuttings from a lone and very old hollowed-out tree growing on
the slopes of an abandoned ski slope. The ski slope had once been a productive orchard but
the trees were all removed when the ski trails were established long ago. The only tree
left in place was this single Bunker Hill around which the ski trails were constructed.
The tree is described in Beachs 1905, Apples of New York, as a medium-sized
fruit, roundish conical in shape with pale whitish-yellow skin splashed with two shades of
red. The flesh is white, sometimes with a red stain next to the skin, tender, juicy and
subacid with a vinous or quince-like flavor. A very fine flavored apple ripening
mid-autumn to early winter.
- This is not an heirloom variety apple, but is a fine apple for the
home orchard that receives little attention. It was raised at the New York State
Agricultural Experiment Station at Geneva, NY in 1974. A very fine dessert apple with what
has described as a "stunning color." Fruit is medium in size with bright pink
skin overlaid with dark burgundy. The white flesh is heavily stained with pink when
bitten. Flavor is tangy-sweet with firm, crisp flesh. Ripens late August to
September. Fruit Picture
Green) - According to apple collector Lee Calhoun, Burning Green is probably the same
apple as Burner Green, a variety first mentioned in 1868 by the Illinois Horticultural
Society. This apple was located in Mitchell County, NC by Calhoun. Fruit Picture
Blanc (Calville Blanc
dHiver, White Winter Calville) - A high quality classic French dessert apple dating
to the 16th century. Its origin is unclear but is possibly of either French or
German descent. It is a variety often seen in classic paintings of the Renaissance period
and is featured prominently in Monets still life, Apples and Grapes. Fruit is
medium to large, oblong or conical with uneven ribs extending the length of the fruit. The
skin is smooth, pale green or yellow with a light red blush. The yellowish-white flesh is
tender, highly aromatic with a flavor sometimes described as "effervescent."
Ripens in October.
|Calvin - According to history, Calvin was brought from Virginia to Kentucky over
a hundred years ago. It was highly popular as a cider and brandy apple, but is also a
fine, fresh eating apple. Medium to large with attractive yellow skin. Ripens mid-July to
( Bristol, Canada Redstreak, Nonesuch, Nonsuch, Old
Nonsuch, Red Canada, Red Winter, Richfield Nonsuch, Steele's Red Winter,
Steel's Red, Winter Nonsuch) - The origin is unclear but probably arose in
New England in the early 1800's. It is thought to have been brought into
Western New York from near Toronto, Canada, and raised commercially in that
region as Canada Red. Fruit is medium to large and mostly uniform in shape.
Skin is smooth, tough and clear yellow overspread with a deep red blush and
darker red striping. The firm, crisp and juicy fine-grained flesh is whitish
with tints of yellow or green. Rich and aromatic, it is a very fine fresh
eating apple. Ripens in late Fall.
Red Cannon, Green Cannon) - First mentioned in literature in 1804, Cannon Pearmain is a
fine all-purpose apple suitable for fresh eating, drying, cooking, and cider making. Like
many long-keeping varieties, it improves greatly after several weeks in storage. It is a
heavy cropper and grows best in good soil at higher mountain elevations. Fruit is
medium-sized with smooth yellow skin striped and marbled with dark red and crimson. The
aromatic yellow flesh is crisp and firm with a pleasant, brisk flavor. Ripens late
November and stores well until March.
Pippin - This apple is believed to be an
old North Carolina variety but its origin is unclear. In 1995, a very old tree thought to
be well over one hundred years old was discovered by our good friend and fellow apple
collector, Maurice Marshall of Pinnacle, NC. It was growing on the farm of Mrs. Osborne of
Ashe Co., North Carolina. According to Mrs. Osborne, the tree was planted in the 1800's by
a previous landowner, Millard Brown. The fruit is large and round with
greenish-yellow skin with an
occasional red blush. The flesh is tender and juicy
with a very pleasing refreshing flavor. Ripens late November.
Fruit Picture Bloom Picture
Red June - (Blush
June, Georgia June, Knight's Red June, Red Harvest, Jones June, Jones Early
Harvest, Summer Red, Everbearing Red June, Red June, Red Juneating, Carolina Red,
Improved Red June, Sheepnose Crab ) - A long-time Southern favorite, Carolina Red June is
believed to have originated in the early 1800's in Tennessee. This apple has long been
highly valued for its early ripening qualities. Unlike most early season varieties which
fail to develop a full balance of flavors in their short ripening period, Carolina
Red June has a high quality flavor making it a first choice for fresh eating and pie
making. The tree is very productive and has an unusual habit of occasionally blooming
twice in the same season, producing a second, smaller crop of apples in the fall.
Fruit is small to medium with smooth, dark red skin and is quite oblong or conical in
appearance. The tender, fine-grained flesh is white and sometimes stained with red when
eating. Ripens June to July and only a fair keeper.
Blue (Lady Fitzpatrick, Patton) - Carters
Blue was first grown in the 1840's by Colonel Carter of Mount Meigs Depot, Alabama. The
fruit is very attractive with a bluish color due to its heavy bloom. Once thought to be
extinct, this wonderful apple was rediscovered by Lee Calhoun growing in the National
Fruit Trust in Kent, England. Medium to large fruit with greenish-yellow skin, mostly
covered with dull red and all overlaid with a heavy bluish bloom. Flesh is white, crisp
and juicy and very fragrant. Flavor has been described as "rose-water." Ripens
September and not a good keeper.
- Another of the many wonderful heritage apples
rediscovered by our good friend and devoted apple hunter, Tom Brown.
Although the date and area of
origin is unknown, it probably arose in North Carolina in the mid-1800's.
The apple was described in an 1861 catalog from the Fruitland Nursery of
Augusta, Georgia. Fruit is large and oblate-conical in shape. The skin is
light yellow and green with scattered patches of russet. The fine-grained
white flesh is tender, aromatic and almost sweet. Ripens late fall to early
|Cathead (Catshead, Cathead Greening, Round Cathead) - This is a very old English
cooking apple first mentioned in literature from 1629. It was once widely sold by Virginia
nurseries until the early 1900's, but was certainly grown throughout Virginia for decades
before then. Supposedly resembles a cats head when viewed in profile, but this
feature is variable. A very large round apple with greenish-yellow skin. Good for cooking
and drying. Ripens September.
|Chandler (Winter Chandler, Chandlers Red) - An apple which originated in
Chelmsford, Massachusetts in the early 1800's. Fruit is medium to large, roundish to
slightly flattened, with pale yellow skin colorfully splashed and striped with dull red.
Flesh is greenish-white to yellow, tender and juicy. Ripens October to November.
Colley) - An apple of the Deep South, Cauley arose
in Mississippi prior to 1860. According to Calhoun (1995) the apple was
"resurrected" in 1919 when a mature tree was found in Grenada, Mississippi.
Several young trees were grafted from this old tree and planted at the Delta
Branch Agricultural Experiment Station in Stoneville. Only one tree remained
after the famous 1927 Mississippi River flood and thrived for many years
afterwards producing an average of one ton of apples every year through the
1930's. A high quality apple suitable for fresh eating or cooking. Fruit is
large to very large, occasionally weighing over a pound. Skin is
greenish-yellow with a slight blush or red striping. The yellowish flesh is
crisp, juicy and flavorful. Ripens early August but can picked in mid-July
for cooking and baking. Fruit Picture
Strawberry (Sherwoods Favorite, Early
Sugar Loaf, Jackson Apple) - A very beautiful apple originating in New York around 1850.
Excellent for both fresh eating and cooking. The fruit should be picked when the skin
begins to develop a milky appearance. Medium sized fruit is quite elongated in appearance
with smooth yellowish-white skin nearly covered with stripes of red and crimson. Tender
white flesh is juicy, aromatic and highly flavored.
Black - This variety was collected by Lee
Calhoun in 1987 from Ernest Sellers of Cherryville, NC. It is an unique variety grown by
the Sellers family for many years. Believed to be named for Elszy Black, grandfather of
Mr. Sellers. Calhoun describes this as one of his favorite late July apples. Fruit medium
sized, with greenish skin, covered with dull red and numerous red stripes. White flesh is
crisp and very juicy. Ripens late July to August and not a good keeper.
|Chesapeake - A recent discovery
(1958) which originated in a private orchard in Wallingford, Kentucky and was introduced
by Bountiful Ridge Nurseries of Princess Anne, Maryland in 1967. It arose as an open
pollinated seedling of Red Rome. Fruit is medium-sized with a shape similar to Rome and
having highly colored red skin. The white flesh is crisp, juicy and flavorful. Ripens in
- Chesney is an old apple variety originating in the mountains of
eastern Tennessee, but little else of its history is known. Obtained from the late Henry
Morton of Gatlinburg, Tennessee, it is a fine late season apple with excellent keeping
qualities. Ripening in early October, it is very hard and firm when first picked, but
softens and sweetens in flavor after being stored for a few weeks. The medium-sized
fruit has greenish-yellow skin overlaid with red splashes and striping. The greenish-white
flesh is firm and crisp with a mild, sweet flavor. A very fine keeper, storing well into
March and April.
Creek Apple -
This is a first-rate cooking and fresh eating
apple obtained in 1999 from the late Mrs. Clara
Daugherty, a very sweet 95 year-old lady who lived
here in Ashe Co. She and her late husband once had a large apple orchard in
the 1940's and sold apples throughout North Carolina and Tennessee. The
Creek Apple arose as a seedling on the banks of a small creek which runs
through her property. Clara contacted us with a request to graft the apple
so she could transplant the tree to a more secure location. Too many of the
apples would ripen and fall into the creek and be swept downstream. Clara
proclaims this to be a much better cooking apple than Wolf River. High
praise indeed! Fruit is medium to above medium in size with
pale yellow skin which closely
resembles Golden Delicious. Flesh is firm, crisp, very
juicy and tart in flavor
with warm spicy overtones. It cooks up quickly but does not store
well. A dependable bearer ripening in late August
to early September. Fruit
Pearmain - A very high quality English dessert
apple, found growing in a hedge by John Braddick of Claygate, in the county of Surrey in
England. Fruit has a rich, nutty flavor with a good balance of sugars and acids. Skin is
dull green, partially covered with a grayish-orange flush and overlaid with a scaly russet
coating. Flesh is greenish-white, firm, crisp and juicy. Ripens
- Discovered in Dunn County, Wisconsin and
introduced in 1957. It is red sport of Fireside which itself is a cross of McIntosh and
Longfield. It is a large round apple with a solid red color and a sweet perfumed fragrance
reminiscent of its parent McIntosh. An excellent fresh eating and cooking apple and a
superb keeper, holding well into April. A very hardy variety ripening in October.
Cornish Julyflower) -
A absolutely wonderful dessert apple discovered in a
cottage garden in Cornwall, England, sometime in the 18th century and
introduced in 1813. Not an especially attractive apple with dull green skin
with reddish brown coloration and thin russet covering. However, the apple
is extremely rich and flavorful, often with an intriguing clove-like aroma.
Sometimes the fruit will develop a clear dark red color when fully exposed
to the sun. Fruit is medium to large in size, roundish-conical in shape and
tapering to a five-pointed base. The rough russeted skin is dry and bumpy.
Ripens in October.
|Cortland - Cortland is a cross of Ben Davis and McIntosh which originated
at the New York State Agricultural Experimental Station in 1898. A medium-sized apple with
smooth yellowish skin mostly covered with dark red and crimson. The fine-grained tender
white flesh is very juicy and does not brown rapidly after exposure to air. A reliable and
highly productive tree which comes into bearing early. Ripens late September to early
|Cotton Sweet (Cotton, Cotton Bole,
Large White Sweet) - This apple originated in North Carolina with Welsh immigrants who
settled near Burgaw and Rockfish Creeks on the banks of the Cape Fear River. It was first
described in 1858 when it was introduced to the American Pomological Society as the
"Cotton" apple by a Mr. Westbrook, a North Carolina nurseryman. According to
Calhoun (1995), an apple found in the North Carolina mountains years ago known as Cotton Sweet or
White Sweet is most likely the same variety. Fruit is large, round to oblate in shape with
white to pale yellow skin. The yellowish-white flesh is very tender and very sweet. Ripens
Orange Pippin - One of the truly great fresh
eating dessert apples. It originated in 1825 in England from seeds of Ribston Pippin.
Superlatives abound when describing the flavor - spicy, honeyed, nutty, pear-like. A rich,
full flavored apple with a pleasing aroma. Fruit is medium sized with yellowish skin
flushed with an attractive reddish-orange blush. Cream colored flesh is fine-grained, firm
and juicy. Ripens September to October and keeps until January.
N. Georgia) - This is a
different apple from Cranberry Pippin which arose in New York. The Cranberry of north
Georgia was first mentioned in 1855 and was part of the large collection of heirloom
apples grown by the late Henry Morton of Gatlinburg, Tennessee. This medium-sized apple is
roundish-conical in shape with light yellow skin having a faint red blush on the shady
side and darker red on the sunny side. Ripens late August.
(John Touchers, Bewley Down Pippin) - Crimson
King is a fine English cider apple which also serves as an excellent culinary variety. It
originated with John Toucher of Bewley Down, Somerset, England, who first propagated the
variety in the late 19th century. It produces an acidic juice with no
astringency and makes a light, fruity cider. Fruit is a bright crimson color and is
harvested in November. Fruit
|Criterion - Discovered as a chance seedling in the late 60's near Parker,
Washington, Criterion is a wonderful all-purpose apple whose parentage includes Red
Delicious, Yellow Delicious, and Winter Banana. It is a large, blocky fruit having a mild,
sweet taste with just a touch of tartness. It has a very pleasant aroma and is recommended
for its fine cooking qualities as well as a great drying apple. Ripens in October and
stores well for several months.
variety) - There is much confusion over the
identification of Crow Egg. The old southern classic, Crows Egg (also know as
Ravens Egg or Black Annie) is distinctly different in appearance and flavor from the
northern Crow Egg. Southern Crows Egg is a dark red, very conical-shaped apple of
high quality and is identical to the variety Black Gilliflower. (See Black Gilliflower) The northern Crow Egg is
a medium size apple, somewhat flattened in appearance with yellow skin flushed with red
shading. The Worcester County Horticultural Society in Massachusetts has sold this variety
for many years. It makes an outstanding fresh eating apple. Ripens September to early
October. Fruit Picture
|Cullasaga (Winter Horse, Callasaga, Cullasaja) - In 1830, Nancy Bryson of Macon
County, North Carolina, planted seeds of Horse apple at her parent's home located near the
Cullasaga River and Gorge. The apples
produced from this seedling tree received
recognition as a high quality fruit by the
renowned pomologist Silas McDowell and eventually introduced to the public through his
efforts. Once widely grown in the South, it was considered extinct until the distinguished
apple collector Lee Calhoun discovered the apple in 1989 growing in Macon County. Fruit is
medium to large with tough, yellowish skin mostly covered with dark red and crimson. The
skin will have a greasy or oily feel when ripe. Ripens late October to November.
|Dabinett - An old English cider apple which arose in Martock,
Somerset, England. It is a small, greenish-yellow apple believed to be a seedling of
Chisel Jersey. It produces a sweet, astringent juice which makes a soft, full-bodied
vintage cider. A very aromatic apple which can be picked in November.
Davidson Sweeting -
Discovered in 1994 by Dr. L.R. Littleton, this old
apple tree was found, barely clinging to life, in the old Berrier Orchard
near Cana, Virginia. Renee Berrier told Dr. Littleton that the original
grafts were brought into Virginia from Davidson
County, North Carolina in the 1800's. The apple has
been long prized by the Berrier family for making
outstanding apple preserves. Fruit is medium in size, somewhat
oblate, with light yellow skin with light red striping. Ripens in August.
(Ozark Pippin, Ben Ford) - More commonly
known as Ozark Pippin, Deaderick originated in 1850 on the farm of Benjamin Ford of
Washington County, Tennessee. In 1896, it was first described under the name Deaderick to
avoid confusion with an apple already named Ozark. According to Calhoun, the apple was
rediscovered in 1992 in Tennessee under the name Ozark Pippin. Close study of this apple
showed it to be Deaderick. Fruit is large, slightly conical, sometimes with unequal sides.
The tough, smooth yellow skin will have an occasional pink blush and frequent large,
reddish spots. The mild, yellowish flesh is fine-grained and juicy. Ripens in the fall and
(Black Apple, Black Detroit,
Crimson Pippin, Detroit, Detroit Black, Grand Sachem, Large Black) -
Often confused with the southern apple, Red Detroit, the Detroit Red is an
old variety introduced by early French homesteaders into the Detroit,
Michigan area. It is a large apple with a lot of variability in color,
ranging from bright red to almost black. One can find well-groomed trees of
this variety growing today at Thomas Jefferson's estate, Monticello, which
he planted in 1805. Fruit is large in size, oblate in form with distinct
ribbing. The thick, tough skin is dark crimson in color, overlaid with
purplish-red which darkens considerably as the apple ripens. The white flesh
is coarse, juicy and aromatic with occasional red staining under the skin.
Ripens September in most areas.
- The origin of this Southern variety is unknown, but cuttings were
brought into Alabama from South Carolina in 1895 by the father of Mrs. J.B. Devine. It was
in her fathers family for many years before this time. An early bearing variety,
ripening mid-late July. Fruit size is medium to large with greenish-yellow skin with red
stripes and splashes. Flesh is greenish-white, fine-grained, and somewhat tart in flavor.
- An old Southern apple originating in Habersham Co.,
Georgia around 1855. Once believed to be extinct, but recently re-discovered. A medium to
large apple with light green skin covered with gray dots. Yellowish-white flesh is tender
and juicy with a very pleasant flavor. Considered to be a high quality dessert apple.
Ripens September to October.
Red Delight (Red Joy) - Once a popular Southern
apple sold extensively throughout the south in the early 1900's, Dixie Red Delight is now
a very hard-to-find variety. It originated with an amateur horticulturist in Sylacauga,
Alabama who later sold the rights to the H. G. Hastings Nursery in 1960.
Rediscovered by our friend and fellow collector, Joyce Neighbors of Alabama, this fine old
apple is once again available. It is a handsome red fruit with a sweet, crisp flavor and
also a very fine keeper. Fruit Picture
Matthews - Originated in Tennessee and credited to Dr. W.F. Matthews. An absolutely wonderful dessert apple, rich and sweet in flavor. Described in a letter from 1917 as an apple that “melts in the mouth like candy.” A large, roundish conical apple having yellow skin overlaid with red striping. Sweet with white, tender flesh. Ripens in August. Fair keeper.
|Domine (American Nonpareil, English Rambo, English Beauty) - Originated in
Maryland in the 1830's. Medium size and flattened in shape. Yellowish skin with red
mottling and slight russeting. Juicy and aromatic. Ripens late and is a good keeper. A
very prolific bearer.
of Oldenburg (Duchess, Oldenburg, Borovinka) -
Known as the "King of the Ironclads" for its extreme winter hardiness, this is
one of many fine old apples of Russian origin. It arose around the upper Volga region of
Russia and was introduced into England around 1817. In 1835, the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society imported this apple into the United States. Very popular as a fine
cooking and fresh eating apple, Duchess is a medium to large fruit with smooth yellow skin
overlaid with a red wash, sometimes completely red when fully exposed to the sun. The
whitish flesh is tender, crisp and juicy with a tangy flavor reminiscent of Winesap.
Ripens August to September and is only a fair keeper.
(Dula, Coffey Seedling) - Dula Beauty originated from seeds of a
Limbertwig planted by J. A. Dula of Lenoir, North Carolina. Another apple, Coffey Seedling, was once thought to be a distinctly different variety but is, in fact, identical to Dula Beauty. It is a strong, vigorous tree
well adapted to all growing conditions. In 1908, the NC Dept. of Agriculture recommended
this variety for Piedmont growers. Fruit is large and slightly conical with dark-red skin
overlaid with darker red stripes. Flesh is yellowish-white, tender, crisp and juicy.
Ripens late fall to early winter.
Late Sweet - A sweet English cider
apple discovered in the 1940's in the orchard of a Mr. Dunkerton of Baltonsborough,
Somerset. It produces a juice that is sweet and low in tannin. Makes a cider which is
light and fruity. A late season apple ripening October-November.
Apple Variety Descriptions
Apple Variety Descriptions (M-R)
Apple Variety Descriptions (S-Y)