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Apple Variety Descriptions
Apple Variety Descriptions (E-L)
Apple Variety Descriptions (M-R)
Edmund's Pippin ( Saint Edmund's
Russet) - An old classic English dessert apple that ranks among the best for fresh eating.
It originated with a Mr. R. Harvey of Suffolk, England, and was recognized as a high
quality fruit by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1875. Though not attractive with thin,
scaly, patches of russet, the flavor has been described as being like "pear flavored
vanilla ice cream." Fruit is yellow-gold with large, diffuse patches of light brown
russet. Cream-colored flesh is rich, juicy, and sweet. Ripens September to October.
|Salome - Originated around 1853 in Ottawa, Illinois and first
propagated by Mr. E.C. Hatheway. He exhibited the apple in 1878 before the Illinois State
Horticultural Society where it was introduced to the public as Salome. It has a very good
flavor, but its relatively small size and poor color contributed to its general lack of
popularity. Fruit is medium to small, conical, and often ribbed. The smooth, tough yellow
skin is mottled and blushed with pinkish-red and carmine striping. The yellowish flesh is
firm, fine-grained, crisp, and juicy. Ripens in November.
( Irish Russet) - An old apple of Irish origin which first
received attention in England in 1818. Calhoun indicates that Sam Young was listed with
two North Carolina nurseries from 1856 to 1860. Fruit is small with bright yellow skin
covered with gray russet and having an occasional orange flush. The greenish flesh is
juicy and tender. Ripens late November to December.
A very early season apple which originated in
Georgia sometime before 1900. The story goes that Dr. A.M. Ragland of Pilot
Point, Texas, bought some apple trees from the Fruitland Nursery of Augusta,
Georgia, which were labeled as the variety "Mrs. Bryan."
Several years later Dr. Ragland realized the trees were not Mrs. Bryan and
all subsequent attempts by he and the Fruitland Nursery to properly identify
the trees failed. He renamed the tree San Jacinto. Excellent variety for
warmer climates and praised as one of the best varieties for north Texas,
New Mexico and Kansas. Fruit is large, oblong to slightly conical with pale
yellow skin, covered with a deep orange to reddish blush and overlaid with
darker red nearly covering the entire apple. The crisp yellow flesh is juicy
and refreshing. Ripens July - August.
(Shell, Schull) - Schell is an apple of West Virginia
origin described in 1839 and once sold by the Fruitland Nursery of Augusta, Georgia in
1871. Fruit is medium-sized, round, and occasionally lobed. Skin is clear yellow,
sometimes with a pink blush on the sunny side. The fine-grained yellow flesh is crisp,
juicy, and very aromatic. Ripens September to October.
Red Winter, Wilcoxs Winter) - Scott's Winter originated in 1864 on the Scott farm of
Newport, Vermont. It is an attractive red apple well-suited for cooking when underripe due
to its high acid content. When fully ripe, it is a very fine dessert apple with a
well-balanced flavor. Fruit size is about medium with a slightly conical form. The thin,
smooth skin is greenish-yellow, mostly covered with bright deep-red mottling and overlaid
with darker red striping. The yellowish flesh is sometimes stained with red and is crisp,
tender and very juicy. An aromatic apple ripening November to December and keeping until
- This is a very fine, but little known apple of recent
origin, developed in 1942. Created by George D. Oberle, noted apple breeder in the 1940's and 50's at Virginia Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virginia. Dr. Oberle was also involved in the development and release of another equally fine apple, Virginia Gold. Named for the apple growing region of West Virginia,
Shenandoah is a cross of Opalescent and Winesap and is a richly flavored apple somewhat
reminiscent of Golden Delicious. It is aromatic, crisp and quite juicy. Highly recommended
for pie making as the cut slices hold their shape well when cooked. Fruit round to conical with tough, waxy skin with occasional russet patch. Golden red to almost all red in color. Yellowish flesh is firm and sprightly subacid in flavor. Ripens mid-September to early
October and keeps moderately well.
(Waddell Hall, Horse Bud, Dixie) - Shockley is one of the
all-time Southern favorites once grown from Virginia to Georgia. It originated with Mr.
Shockley of Jackson County, Georgia in 1852 and was first exhibited at the Georgia State
Fair that same year. It is an abundant and dependable bearer which grows well under all
climatic and soil conditions. Fruit medium or smaller and rather oblong conical. The
smooth, tough, pale yellow skin is mostly covered with bright red or crimson. The
yellowish-white flesh is crisp, juicy, and sweet. Ripens October to November.
Cider (Cider, Cider Apple, Popular Bluff) - An
excellent cider apple that is also very good for eating out-of-hand. Believed to have
originated in Bucks County, Pennsylvania in the 1800's. Fruit is medium to large with
smooth, tough yellow skin mostly covered with pale red. The yellowish-tinged flesh is
tender, breaking, and very juicy. Ripens late in the season and does not keep well.
Seedling - This
apple arose with the Smith family of Francisco in Stokes County, North Carolina before the
start of the Civil War. It was grown commercially by Garland Smith around 1900 in a large
orchard containing over 2000 trees. The apples were sold by Mr. Smith in the Mt. Airy and
the Winston-Salem areas and were popular for producing cider vinegar. According to Calhoun
in his wonderful book, an ancestor of Mr. Smith describes Smith Seedling as "a very
tasty apple, a good keeper, and especially good to fry since they dont cook to a
mush." The fruit is medium-sized and slightly flattened on the ends. The skin is
light green in color, with a dark-red blush on the sunny side and overlaid with darker red
striping. Flesh is yellowish, fine-grained, crisp and juicy. Ripens October and is a good
keeper. Fruit Picture
(Gibbons Smokehouse, Mill Creek, Red Vandevere) - A wonderful and
very flavorful apple that originated in the 1830's with William Gibbons of Lancaster
County, Pennsylvania. The original tree grew up near the smokehouse of Mr. Gibbons and
thus its name was derived. Besides its excellent eating qualities, Smokehouse is a
fine cooking and baking apple. The apple has greenish-yellow skin covered with shades and
stripes of red. Flesh is yellowish, crisp and firm with a pleasing spicy flavor. Ripens
September or later depending on the locale.
(Fameuse, Red American, Royal Snow, Snow Chimney, Chimney Apple, Pomme de Neige, Chimney Point) - A very old and
very attractive dark red apple brought to America in the 1700's by early French settlers, probably as seedlings from Canada. The apple was noted in Canada in 1739. Beach
describes Snow as one of the most desirable dessert apples of its season. It is indeed a
very high quality dessert apple, but does not have the qualities of a fine cooking apple.
Fruit is medium-sized with smooth greenish-yellow skin mostly covered with a deep red
blush and lighter red striping. The juicy, aromatic flesh is very tender and very white, often streaked with red.
Ripens September to October and is a good keeper.
Fruit Picture Bloom Picture
|Sops of Wine
Bell's Early, Hominy, Sops in Wine) - Formerly sold
in the South as Hominy, Sops of Wine is described as an excellent early summer apple which
grows well in all regions of the South. Its exact origins are unclear, but Beach
(1905) says it
is an ancient English culinary and cider apple. Fruit medium to large, slightly conical,
with greenish-yellow skin covered with dark red and faint red striping. Flesh is yellow and
often stained with pink, tender, aromatic, and not very juicy. Ripens late June to July,
later in the mountains.
(Sparger Smokehouse) - This is an excellent keeping apple of North
Carolina origin. It sprouted from seeds of a Limbertwig near the smokehouse on the farm of
Merlin Sparger of Mt. Airy, North Carolina at the end of the 19th century. Fruit is
medium or smaller with thick green skin with red and purple striping on the sunny side.
Flesh is greenish in color, firm and juicy. Ripens in October and is a superb keeper.
- Although not exactly an antique or heirloom variety,
Spencer is a high-quality dessert apple that has not received the attention that it
deserves. A cross of McIntosh and Golden Delicious, it was developed in 1926 at the
British Columbia Experimental Station in Summerland and released in 1959. Fruit is large,
oblong to conical, with yellow skin flushed and streaked with carmine and reddish-orange.
The greenish-white flesh is soft, tender and very sweet. Ripens in September and is a good
(of N. Georgia) - Over the years there have been numerous varieties
of old southern apples named "Spice"which originated in small local communities
or regions but never gained much attention outside their areas of origin. Calhoun lists
several examples of these in his book, including Virginia Spice, Spice Sweet, Early Spice,
Cumberland Spice and Winter Spice. The Spice apple of northern Georgia was made available
to the public by our friend Joyce Neighbors of Gadsden, Alabama. It is an old family apple
dating back over 100 years. It is a fine fresh-eating apple and makes great apple pie. An
early apple variety, ripening in July-August.
of Old Virginia
- There is some confusion as to the identity of this apple. In 1859 Hopewell
Nurseries of Fredericksburg, Virginia sold an apple known as Virginia Spice.
This apple is described as being medium in size with whitish skin covered
with a few brown dots. Spice of Old Virginia has considerable red on the
sunny side so is probably distinctly different from Virginia Spice.
Fruit is medium-sized with smooth, yellow skin mostly covered with
reddish-orange with darker red stripes and distinct large gray dots. The
yellowish flesh is firm and juicy with a crisp tangy flavor. Ripens in late
September to October and is a good keeper.
|Spigold - A true connoisseur variety, Spigold is an apple of the highest quality
and flavor. It is not a true heirloom apple, being released by the New York Agricultural
Experiment Station in 1962, but is an apple that should be included in all home orchards.
A cross of Northern Spy and Golden Delicious, Spigold combines the best of both varieties.
Fruit is large with smooth, reddish and bronze striped skin. Crisp, juicy and very
aromatic. Ripens September to October and is a fair keeper.
(Star in the East, Star, Early Greening) - Historically,
there has been some confusion between Starr and Star, both of which at one time were
considered as separate apples. However, in his research for his excellent book, Calhoun
states that they are probably one and the same apple. Starr originated in the late 1700's
as a seedling on the farm of John Starr of Woodburg, New Jersey. It was widely sold
throughout the South and described in old nursery catalogs as "the largest early
apple known, measuring 10 to 12 inches in circumference." They were frequently picked
unripe and sold as a cooking apple under the name of Early Greening. Fruit is large to
very large, somewhat roundish, with pale greenish-yellow skin with a faint red blush. The
yellow-tinged flesh is tender, crisp, very juicy and aromatic. Ripens late June to July
and is a fair keeper for an early apple.
( Starke, Robinson, Winter King) - Stark is an
apple that originated in Ohio around 1869 and was widely grown there for years. It is a
fine, late-keeping apple well suited for commercial markets. The tree is vigorous and
highly productive, but susceptible to fireblight. Fruit medium to large, oblong to conical
and occasionally ribbed. The greenish-yellow skin is mostly covered with dull red and
purple splashes and stripes, sometimes almost entirely red. The greenish-white to yellow
flesh is crisp, coarse, firm and moderately juicy. Ripens late winter.
|Stayman ( Stayman Winesap) - Stayman is a progeny of Winesap and like its well
known and historic parent, is an apple of the highest quality. The apple arose in 1866
when Dr. J. Stayman planted seeds of Winesap on his farm in Leavenworth, Kansas. Like
Winesap, it has sterile pollen and cannot pollinate other apple trees. Fruit is medium to
large with smooth greenish-yellow skin mostly covered with stripes and splashes of red and
crimson. The tangy whitish-yellow flesh is firm, crisp, and juicy. Ripens in October.
Strawberry Pippin is a lovely red-striped apple with a
pleasant crunch and a very pleasing sweet-tart flavor. The origin of this
attractive apple is uncertain but is thought to have come from England at an
unknown date. The medium-sized apple is striped with light and dark red with
a light red blush on the sunny side. The crisp white flesh is juicy and
quite sweet. Ripens in September and is a fair keeper.
- A bittersharp English cider apple which gained attention
in the 1920's when surveys found trees growing in Rodney Stoke, England. It produces a
sharp juice with a distinctive astringency, qualities favored for producing fine, sharp
English cider. The tree is vigorous and a heavy cropper, but is usually slow to bear.
Fruit is waxy red with a fine aroma. Ripens late November to December.
According to Calhoun (1995), there are three described varieties of
Stump, leading to some confusion over the identification of this apple. One Stump apple
was sold in the late 1800's in Kentucky as a seedling of Newtown Pippin. This variety is
extinct. Another Stump is of Delaware origin and was not sold by most southern nurseries.
A third Stump, available today, originated in 1875 in Chili, New York and was very popular
as a high-quality autumn apple. Skin is pale yellow with a pink wash overlaid with
splashes and stripes of dark red. The whitish flesh is fine-grained, tender and juicy.
Ripens September to October.
Sugar Loaf, Sugar Loaf Greening, Hutching's Seedling) -
Some early literature indicates this apple originated in
England but most likely it arose in Russia. It was a popular apple widely
grown in the Ohio Valley in the 1880's and was believed to have been brought
to this region from Pennsylvania around 1824. It was listed in a North
Carolina nursery catalog in 1855. The apple is medium-sized, roundish and
somewhat flattened with light green skin with heavy russeting around the
cavity and large, distinctive, russeted dots. The flesh is white,
fine-grained, somewhat dry and quite sweet. Ripens in August.
Banana - A very attractive apple with a
distinct banana flavor and aroma when fully ripe. The apple originated in Marion County,
South Carolina and was sold there and in North Carolina until the early 1900's. In 1900,
it was trademarked by the J. Van Lindley Nursery of Greensboro, North Carolina. The fruit
is slightly conical, having deep yellow skin with a faint red blush and pink and red
stripes. Ripens August to September.
Champion (Holland, Kincaid) - Summer Champion is one of the few apples to have
originated in the warm regions of Texas. The apple originated in 1923 at the home of J. W.
Kincaid of Weatherford, Texas. Originally known as Kincaid, the apple's name was later changed to
Holland after G. A. Holland, a former well-known resident of Weatherford. In 1930, Stark Brothers Nursery began selling this tree and renamed it Summer Champion, a name officially accepted today. The apple was
once an important commercial variety in Texas. It is a very productive variety which
ripens early to produce a large, red, flavorful apple. Ripens late July to August.
( King, Kentucky Summer Queen, August Apple)
- A very fine and attractive apple brought into Kentucky from North Carolina in the early
1800's. It became known as King in Kentucky and was an important commercial variety there
around 1850. Once considered to be extinct, it was rediscovered in 1986 by apple collector
Joyce Neighbors of Alabama. Fruit is medium to large with greenish-yellow skin overlaid
with red and crimson stripes and splashes. The yellowish-white flesh is brittle, tender,
fine-grained, and juicy. Ripens July to August.
Ladyfinger - This apple was
discovered several years ago in an old orchard in Fries, Virginia and is believed to be
the old Maryland apple, Ladyfinger. Fruit is medium, roundish- conical with yellowish skin
mostly covered with deep crimson. The tender white flesh is tender, moderately juicy and
almost sweet in flavor. Ripens in August.
Orange - In the early 1980's, Lee Calhoun
rediscovered this old North Carolina apple growing in a homeowner's field in Chatham
County, NC. From 1920 - 1928, Summer Orange was listed in an old catalog from a small
nursery located in Chatham Co. It apparently was grown only in Chatham and nearby counties
and never became commercially popular. The fruit is large, round, and light
greenish-yellow in color with dark specks. Great for apple pie.
(Early Queen, Orange Apple, Queen) - Summer Queen is a very
popular southern apple variety which originated in New Jersey in the 1800's. It is a very
productive tree and is a late bloomer which protects it from most late spring frosts. It
is a very fine cooking and drying apple with a rich, spicy flavor. Fruit is medium to
large in size, roundish-conical to oblong in shape, with pale yellow skin striped with
dull red and dark crimson. The aromatic yellow flesh is coarse and juicy with a spicy
subacid flavor. Ripens July to August.
(Summer Rambo of Pennsylvania, Imperial Rambo) - This
apple is of French origin and once quite popular in Maryland and Virginia. The fruit can
be picked while still green for frying, pies and applesauce. The fruit can be large and is
often ribbed with unequal sides. Skin is greenish yellow washed with pink and carmine on
the sun exposed side. The greenish yellow flesh is coarse, tender and very juicy. Ripe
( Glass Apple, Lippincott, Woolmans Striped Harvest) - Summer
Rose is a very high quality, early season apple originating in New Jersey in the early
1800's. It compares favorably with other better- known early apples such as Red Astrachan
and Yellow Transparent. It is a late bloomer and escapes most late spring frosts. Summer
Rose is an attractive fruit with smooth, waxy, yellow skin blushed with red streaks and
blotches. The fine-grained white flesh is tender, crisp, and juicy. Ripens June to July
and does not store well.
(Beauty, Sutton, Morris Red, Steele's Red) - A
high-quality dessert apple which originated in 1848 in Sutton,
Massachusetts. It was once raised as a commercial variety in New York around
1900. A productive but biennial variety occasionally susceptible to
fireblight. Fruit is medium-sized with waxy greenish-yellow skin shaded and
striped with crimson. The whitish flesh is tinged with yellow and is crisp,
juicy and fine-grained. A very early bloomer ripening in September.
(Hardwick) - The name means "heavy" in Dutch
and was first raised by Dutch settlers in the Hudson Valley in the 1700's. A
fine dessert apple which softens and improves in flavor dramatically after
being in storage. Requires a very fertile soil to reach perfection and is
only a moderate producer. The apples have a tendency to drop from the tree
prematurely. Fruit is medium to large with rough greenish-yellow skin which
changes to deep yellow when in storage. The fine-grained yellowish flesh is
firm, tender, juicy and aromatic. A late season apple ripening in November.
A vintage sweet to mild bittersweet cider
apple which originated in Devon, England, sometime in the 18th century. A
small, pale yellow apple which produces sweet juice and mild bittersweet
cider of high quality.
( Bough Apple, Large Yellow Bough, Sweet Harvest) -
This apple was first noted in 1817 as a sweet, early-season apple. Praised as a good fruit
for fresh eating and cooking. This medium to large apple has smooth, pale yellow to white
skin, sometimes with a faint red blush. The tender white flesh is crisp, juicy and very
sweet. Ripens June to July in most areas.
- A pure sweet
European cider apple which arose in Devon, England in the early 18th
century. A pale yellow apple with soft, sweet flesh with low tannin and low
acid. Produces a good quality juice with no astringency, making a sweet to
very mildly bittersweet cider. A biennial producer ripening in October.
- A somewhat unknown variety widely grown in
Wautauga County, North Carolina at the turn of the century, though, oddly enough, never
sold by any North Carolina nurseries. It was listed for sale in 1905 by the Comal Springs
Nursery of New Braunfels, Texas. Our friend and fellow apple collector, Lee Calhoun, with
the help of Miss Inadene Hampton of Watauga County found a very old tree near her home
and was able to save this fine old apple. The fruit is medium to large in size with red
striped skin. The tender, sweet flesh is crisp and juicy.
Winesap (Henry Sweet, Ladies Sweet, Rose Sweet)
- Sweet Winesap originated in New York in the late 1890's. Fruit size is medium to large
and somewhat conical in shape. The smooth, tough skin is greenish-yellow mostly covered
with light red and carmine striping. The clean, white flesh is crisp, fine-grained, juicy
and very sweet. Ripens in October and is a good keeper.
Yard Seedling - This is an
old, local heirloom originating in the mountains of north Georgia and still sold by
Lawsons Nursery of Ball Ground, Georgia. It is most noted for its late bloom,
offering protection from late spring frosts. Fruit is medium with clear yellow skin.
Ripens late fall to early winter.
Our friend, Joyce Neighbors of Gadsden,
Alabama, noted apple collector from whom we obtained this old apple, says
the Tar Button is an old variety first described in a 1982-1983 catalog of
Lawson's Nursery in Ball Ground, Georgia. According to Jim Lawson this apple
probably originated with a Humphrey Tarbutton of northern Georgia sometime
in the 1800's. Fruit is yellow with red striping and is a very good cooking
and drying apple as well as a fine fresh eating variety. Considered one of
the best for apple jelly. Ripens in August.
A fairly uncommon local apple grown
in Yancey County, North Carolina and discovered by Lee Calhoun after being
contacted by Arnold Proffitt and his sister Audrey Davenport. Mr. Proffitt
says this apple was grown on his farm when his father was a young boy making
it an apple more than 100 years old. Travis Whitson, whose family has one
Taylor Sweet tree remaining on the old family farm in Yancey County,
describes the apple as follows: "The
apples ripen in the first and second week of August and do not keep very
long. The fruit is small, yellowish in color with brown specks and is very
sweet. It is so sweet that after biting into it the flesh will start turning
dark quickly. My Mother, while living,
was able to cut the core
out, applied butter and raisins and baked. A very good eating and dessert
(Tender Peeling) - Originated in South Carolina in the
1850's and sold as an all-purpose apple for eating, cooking, and cider. Fruit size is
below medium with clear yellow skin overlaid with red stripes and splashes. The
fine-grained yellow flesh is juicy and very tender. Ripens August to September.
(Terry, Winter Terry) - An excellent old southern
apple noted for its long-keeping abilities. It originated before the Civil War with a Mr.
Terry of Fulton County, Georgia, and was soon widely sold throughout Georgia and
neighboring states. Medium-sized fruit with thick, tough yellow skin covered with stripes
and splashes of red and crimson. The white flesh is crisp and juicy. Ripens November and
is an excellent keeper.
(Tetofski, Russian Crab)
- An apple of Russian origin first imported into
this country from England by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in
1853. Used primarily as a cooking apple as it is very acid until fully
ripened. A natural dwarf tree with great cold-hardiness well suited for
growing in extreme cold climates. Fruit is medium, roundish to slightly
oblate with smooth pale yellow skin striped with red and overspread with a
whitish bloom. The white flesh is tender, juicy, coarse and quite tart until
ripe. Fruit ripens in June to July, about the same time as another Russian
apple, Yellow Transparent.
(Browns Golden Sweet, Tallman Sweeting,
Tolmans Sweeting) - A very old American apple thought to have originated in
Dorchester, Massachusetts, but the true date of origin is unknown. The tree grows well, is
very hardy, long-lived and once very popular in home orchards of New England. Fruit is
medium-sized and round with yellowish-white skin often with a faint red blush. The firm,
fine-grained white flesh is juicy and sweet. Ripens late November to December.
County King ( King,
Winter King, Flat
Spitzenburg, Tommy Red) - Tompkins County King is a very
high quality apple that grows well in the south only in the mountains. It
originated in Warren County, New Jersey in the early 1800's and
was brought to Tompkins County, New York in 1804
and named King. It quickly gained favorable recognition for its large size
and fine flavor. The fruit is large to very large with yellow skin washed
with red and crimson. A very flavorful apple with crisp, tender, aromatic
flesh. Ripens September to October.
- This is a wonderful North Carolina
apple with a great story behind it. A local apple once widely grown in
Rowan, Stanly and Cabarrus counties in central North Carolina, Tony is
high-quality apple considered by many to be one of the finest for
applesauce, apple butter, pies and drying. The true origin is uncertain, but
one legend is that the apple originated as a seedling tree from seeds
brought to Mt. Pleasant in Cabarrus County by a wounded Confederate soldier
returning from the battle at Gettysburg. On his journey home, the soldier
picked an apple from a wild tree, pocketed the seeds, and planted them in
his home garden. Another story says the apple arose on the farm of a
wealthy, antebellum North Carolina landowner named Drew Morgan. One day,
while surveying his land with his personal slave, Tony, by his side, a
small, seedling apple tree was discovered on the property. At the request of
Tony, the tree was dug up and replanted near the house and named for the
faithful servant. The fruit is small to medium and somewhat conical in
shape. The skin is light green with an occasional light red blush on the
sunny side. The fine-grained white flesh is white, moderately juicy and not
very crisp. Ripens August to September.
| Tremlett's Bitter A well known classic English cider apple
which was first noted in the Exe Valley in Devon in the 19th century. The
fruit produces a sweet, astringent, high tannin juice which makes a full
bittersweet cider. Excellent used in blends with other sweet cider
varieties. The apple is conical in shape and deep red in color. Ripens in
|Twenty Ounce ( Aurora, Blessing, Cayuga Red Streak) - Originating in New York in the
early 1800's, Twenty Ounce is a very large, showy fruit and an excellent cooking apple.
Cooks easily and makes a fine applesauce. Large, roundish fruit with a thick, tough
greenish-yellow skin with stripes and splashes of carmine and deep red. The whitish-yellow
flesh is coarse, tender and juicy. Ripens in September.
(Fall Vandevere, Ox Eye, Gibbons Smokehouse) - Origin is
unclear, but probably arose in Wilmington, Delaware in the 1700's on the farm of the
Vandiver family. Fruit is medium size or larger with yellow skin overlaid with pale red
stripes. A good keeper, it becomes greasy feeling in storage and loses some crispness, but
remains an excellent cooking apple until March or April. The firm, tender yellow flesh is
crisp, juicy and sweet. Ripens in October or later.
No Core (Vanhoy,
Van Hays No Core) - A fine winter apple of North Carolina origin distinguished by
its very small core which contains few, if any, seeds. Calhoun says that some growers
believe Van Hoy No Core may be identical to York Imperial which itself has a very small
core. Fruit is large in size and slightly conical in shape. The thick, smooth
greenish-yellow skin is overlaid with dull red and dark red stripes and is covered with
distinctive yellow dots. The crisp, firm yellow flesh is coarse, juicy, and flavorful.
Ripens in December and is a very fine keeper.
|Vine (Vine Apple) - Originated in Virginia in late 1890's and very popular
throughout Virginia and North Carolina. Name taken from thin, wiry growth of tree said to
resemble a grapevine. Medium size, conical fruit with distinct lobes. Skin is rough,
yellow with red blush. Yellow flesh is crisp, juicy and subacid. Ripens late October and
is excellent keeper.
Beauty (Zach Red) - Once a very well known and
desirable apple rivaling Red Delicious for popularity, Virginia Beauty is now a rare
apple. The apple originated from a seed planted in 1810 in the backyard of Zach Safewright
in the Pipers Gap community of Carroll Co., Virginia. The original tree stood until
1914. Fruit medium to large, often lopsided, with smooth, dark red or purplish skin. Flesh
is greenish yellow, fine-grained, tender and juicy. Ripens October-February and is a good
- Developed around 1976 by George Oberle at Virginia
Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virginia. It is a cross of Newtown Pippin and Golden
Delicious, with a flavor characteristic of Newtown Pippin. It reaches its peak flavor
after storage for several months. The smooth, clear skin is bright yellow with an
attractive pink blush. The clean, white flesh is crisp and juicy with a pleasant,
distinctive flavor. An outstanding dessert apple, but also well-suited for culinary uses.
Ripens in early October and is a fine keeper.
Greening (Green Mountain
Pippin, Ross Greening, Virginia Blush) - A very old southern apple thought to have come
out of Virginia in the 1700's, but its true origin is unclear. Interestingly, Virginia
Greening was never recorded as being sold by any Virginia nursery under this name, but was
sold by nurseries in other southern states. Fruit is medium to large with thick, tough,
green skin with an occasional red blush on the sunny side and scattered large, reddish
dots. Flesh is yellow, coarse, and sweet. Ripens in October and is a fine keeper.
A beautiful apple of unknown origin but which certainly,
based on its name, must have originated in Virginia. A very striking apple
in appearance with deep, rich red skin, overlaid with large and distinctive
irregular russet dots which cover the surface of the fruit. The crisp, juicy
white flesh is very sweet and aromatic. This fine dessert apple ripens in
|Wagener - This is one of many fine apple varieties which originated in New York
state and became very popular in the South, particularly in Virginia. In 1791,
George Wheeler of Penn Yan, New York, planted apple seeds in his orchard which produced
several fine trees. In 1796, Abraham Wagener purchased the orchard from which arose
the tree that today bears his name. It is an apple that, according to Beach, is a variety
of "superior excellence." It is a very fine cooking apple and
an excellent dessert apple as well. Fruit is medium to large with thin, smooth, glossy
pinkish-red skin overlaying a background of pale yellow. The yellowish-white flesh is
firm, fine-grained, and very juicy. Ripens in October.
(Juniata, Washington, Washington County
Seedling) - This colorful, attractive apple originated in New York in 1849
and was sold by Georgia nurseries from 1885 to 1902. The tree is vigorous
and is a heavy, dependable bearer. Fruit is large and roundish-conical with
waxy yellow skin mottled and striped with brownish-red and carmine. The
yellow flesh is slightly coarse, crisp, juicy and tender. An early season
variety ripening in late July in warmer areas, later in the mountains.
- Originated in 1860 in Excelsior, Minnesota from the seeds of the
Cherry Crab. Widely popular in the South due to its hardiness and early bearing abilities.
When grown in colder areas it is a good keeper; otherwise considered a poor keeper. Skin
is pale greenish-yellow with brilliant red striping. Ripens in August to September in most
of the South but later in mountain areas.
Beauty (Beauty of the West, Big Rambo, Ohio
Beauty) - Believed to have originated in Marietta, Pennsylvania in 1815. Fruit closely
resembles Summer Rambo, but ripens later. Considered one of the best fall apples. Fruit is
large and conical in shape. The skin is thin and greenish-yellow covered with a dull red
coat overlaid with deep red striping. Flesh is greenish-white, juicy, tender and mild.
Ripens November to February in colder regions, but July to August in warmer areas.
(Connecticut, Marietta Seek-No-Further, New England-Seek-No-Further, New
England Red, Red Winter, Red Winter Pearmain, Seeknofurther,
Seek-No-Further, Signifinger, Seek, Red Seek-No-Further, Westfield) - Most
commonly known as Seek-No-Further, this high-quality apple originated near
Westfield, Massachusetts, around 1796 and was widely sold in New York
markets in the 1900's. Beach (1905) describes it as an apple with
"peculiarly pleasant, rich, mild subacid flavor". Fruit is medium-sized,
roundish-conical with dull greenish-yellow skin, shaded and splashed with
orangish-red and striped with carmine. A thin bloom can give a bluish cast
to the skin. Flesh is white tinged with yellow and is firm, crisp, tender
and juicy and is very aromatic. Ripens September-October and is a very good
(Bausel) - A local apple originating here in Ashe County and first
obtained from our friend, Swanzie Shephard, who once grew and maintained hundreds of old
Southern apples. A large yellowish-white apple with a clean, tart flavor. Considered to be
a great cooking apple. Ripens early Fall.
Winter Pearmain (White Pearmain, Cambellite,
Griffins Pearmain) - A very fine apple first described in 1867. Widely sold
throughout the South and prized for its fresh eating qualities. Fruit is medium to large
with smooth, waxy, greenish-yellow skin. Flesh is white or yellowish, aromatic, tender,
crisp, and fine-grained. Ripens September to October and is a fairly good keeper.
Favorite (Williams, Williams Apple, Southern
Queen) - A wonderful old southern apple well known for its adaptability to most growing
conditions. The tree arose around 1750 on the farm of Captain Benjamin Williams in
Roxbury, Massachusetts. In 1830, it was introduced to the public by the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society where it was renamed Williams Favorite. It soon worked its way
into the southern states during the latter part of the 19th century. The apple
resembles Red Delicious, but is brighter red and ripens earlier. It demonstrates
resistance to fireblight. Fruit is medium to large, conical, and sometimes lobed or
angular. Skin is smooth and whitish-yellow with two shades of red wash and stripes. The
yellowish-white flesh is tender, moderately juicy, and stained red at the core line.
Ripens in July.
(Willow, James River, Red Willow Twig) - The origin of
this apple is rather obscure, but generally believed to have arisen in Virginia in the
mid-1800's. The tree is very attractive, with a drooping appearance similar to Willow
trees. A medium to large apple, conical in shape, and sometimes slightly ribbed. Smooth
yellowish green skin blushed with dull red stripes and splashes. The yellowish flesh is
coarse, crisp and juicy. Ripens in October and an excellent keeper, remaining fresh and
firm until March or later.
Red June - This little known apple originated
in Arkansas although the date of origin is unknown. It is an early season apple and was
sold by Stark Bros Nursery during the 1920's. Fruit size in medium or larger with a
roundish-conical shape. The yellowish-green skin is overlaid with a red flush and darker
red stripes and streaks. Ripens in July.
|Wine (Hays Winter, Winter Wine, Large Winter Red) - This apple came from
Delaware in the mid-1800's and is quite well adapted to the South. A large, round apple
frequently with uneven sides. Th smooth yellow skin is covered with splashes and stripes
of deep red, but will be more yellow if fruit is shaded. Yellowish-white flesh is crisp
and juicy. Ripens October to November in colder areas.
|Winesap (Hollands Red Winter,
Blacktwig, Winter Winesap) - Probably the most popular apple in the South but is of
northern heritage. Originated in New Jersey around 1800 and has given rise to many other
famous Southern apples including Kinnairds Choice, Stayman, and Arkansas Black.
Grows well in nearly all soil types and noted for its excellent storage qualities. Fruit is
medium-sized with dark yellow skin mostly covered with stripes of dark red. Yellow flesh
is crisp, firm and very juicy. Wonderful flavor with a snap or "twang" that is
characteristic of this famous apple. Ripens in October. Bloom Picture
Banana (Banana, Flory) - A very attractive
apple that when well grown can have a very faint aroma of fresh bananas. Winter Banana
originated around 1876 in Cass Co., Indiana and was introduced as a commercial seller in
1890. Fruit is large and conical in shape. The smooth, tough skin is bright yellow with a
pinkish red blush on the sun-exposed side. The whitish flesh is crisp tender, fine-grained
and juicy. Ripens September to October.
|Winter Jon (Winter John, Sour Jon) - A fine old mountain apple of unknown origin
grown in the Southern Appalachians for generations. An excellent cooking variety also
superb for cider making. Fruit size is small to medium, conical in shape with
greenish-yellow skin with an occasional red blush. The whitish flesh is crisp, firm,
juicy, aromatic and quite tart. Ripens late November to December and is an excellent
Sweet Paradise (Winter
Paradise, Grandmother, Wine Sweet) - This apple probably originated near Paradise in
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and was first mentioned in 1842. It grows well at altitudes
of 1200 to 1500 or higher but does not do well in lower altitudes. Very sweet with a
pleasant spicy undertone in flavor. Fruit is medium to large with dull green or yellowish
skin, sometimes having a slight brownish or purple blush on the sunny side. The white
flesh is tender, juicy and sweet and is sometimes said to have pear-like flavor. Ripens in
September and is a good keeper.
attractive late fall apple comes from the collection of the late Henry
Morton of Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Mr. Morton was instrumental in finding and
saving many wonderful apple trees on the many old abandoned homesteads in
the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The origin of the Winter Sweet is
unknown. Fruit is medium to large, roundish to mostly oblate in shape. The
thin, smooth, yellow skin is almost entirely covered with dark red shading
with darker red striping. The yellowish-white flesh is very firm, crisp,
juicy and very sweet. Ripens in October and is a good keeper.
|Wolf River - A very well known apple in the Southern Appalachians prized for its
outstanding applesauce and apple butter. Wolf River is an enormous apple that originated
with William Springer of Quebec, Canada. Springer left
his home in Canada for Wisconsin around 1856, stopping along the way to
purchase a basket of apples, believed to be Alexander. When he reached his
new home near Fremont, Wisconsin, he planted seeds from the Alexander apples
along the banks of the Wolf River. Thus was born one of America's great
apples. Fruit is very large and often irregular in shape.
Skin is greenish yellow covered with splashes and stripes of red and carmine. The soft,
tender whitish flesh is coarse-grained and moderately juicy. Ripens in September and is
not a good keeper.
|Yankee Sweet - Once a very popular in certain areas of Virginia, it is
now a very rare variety. Described as excellent for making apple preserves and marmalade.
Fruit is medium-sized and slightly flattened on the ends with light green or yellow skin.
The fine-grained yellowish flesh is moderately crisp, juicy and sweet. Ripens August to
Mill - A very old English
cider apple which originated in the 19th century in Yarlington, West Cadbury
where it was found growing out of a wall near a water wheel. It produces a fine
bittersweet cider with a good aroma and flavor. Fruit is small with pale yellow skin.
Ripens late October to November.
(Yates Winter, Red Warrior) - Yates originated with Matthew
Yates of Fayette County, Georgia, around 1844. Long a popular Southern favorite prized for
its fine flavor and long keeping qualities. Grows well in all regions from the mountains
to the coast. Fruit is small to very small with yellowish-white skin covered with red
stripes and dark red shading. The yellowish-white flesh is tender, juicy and aromatic.
Ripens in October and keeps very well until April.
Bellflower (Fall Bellflower, Lady Washington,
Yellow Sheepnose) - Yellow Bellflower originated in the early 1800's in Burlington, New
Jersey. Medium size fruit is conical, often ribbed, with distinctive knobs at the calyx
end. The smooth skin is pale yellow with a reddish-brown blush. The pale yellowish-white
flesh is firm, crisp, juicy and aromatic. Flavor is rather tart when first picked, but
mellows in storage. Ripens in October and is a fair keeper.
June, Hoover June)
apple of unknown southern origin, resembling Early Harvest and frequently
mistaken for this variety, but with an earlier ripening time than Early
Harvest. Fruit medium-sized, roundish, with thin pale yellow or
greenish-yellow skin. Skin is covered with numerous green and brown dots or
lenticels. The tender yellowish-white flesh is juicy with a brisk subacid
flavor. Ripens late June to July or later, depending on location.
Transparent (Early Transparent,
Russian Transparent, White Transparent, Early June, Early
June Transparent) - One of many old Southern apples of Russian origin
brought into this country in 1870 by the USDA. Resistant to cedar apple rust
and scab and can be grown in all areas of the South including the warmer
coastal plain. Fruit is medium sized with smooth transparent yellow skin.
White-fleshed, tender, fine-grained and juicy. Flavor is
quite tart and tangy. Ripens June to
July, depending on location.
Imperial (Johnsons Fine Winter, York,
Shep) - One of the most important commercial processing apples in Virginia, York Imperial
is also the leading apple variety in Pennsylvania. Originating in York, Pennsylvania in
the 1800's on the farm of a Mr. Johnson, York Imperial soon became a favorite of growers
for its long-keeping abilities and fine processing qualities. The fruit is medium to large
with a distinctive oblong or lopsided shape. The skin is light yellow in color with
stripes of brownish-red. The coarse yellow flesh is firm and juicy with a mild tartness to
the flavor. Ripens late fall (November - December) and hangs well on the tree into late
Apple Variety Descriptions
Apple Variety Descriptions (E-L)
Apple Variety Descriptions (M-R)