Rootstock Information

We use five different rootstocks in our grafting work: EMLA.7, EMLA.106, EMLA.111, Bud. 118 and Bud. 9. These are semi-dwarf rootstocks except for Bud. 9 which is a dwarfing rootstock. The semi-dwarf rootstock will produce mature trees ranging in height from 12 to 20 feet, while trees on dwarf rootstock will be 6 to 10 feet, depending on the amount of pruning employed by the grower. For the majority of our trees, we use MM.7 and MM.106 as these rootstocks are adaptable to different growing conditions.

Rootstock

Apple Rootstock
(Photo courtesy of Kuffel Creek)

Semi-dwarf Rootstocks

EMLA. 7 (Malling-Merton 7): The most widely planted rootstock. Grows poorly on light or sandy soils but performs well on deep fertile loam soils. Anchors well and produces a strong, sturdy tree. Moderately resistant to collar rot. Tree will be 15-16 feet tall at maturity. Plant trees 12-15 feet apart in rows spaced 16 – 20 feet apart. The virus-indexed EMLA clone was introduced in 1974-75.

EMLA.106 (Malling-Merton 106): Excellent anchoring qualities with well-developed root system. Produces an early fruiting tree with heavy cropping potential, moderate vigor and with resistance to woolly apple aphids. Susceptible to collar rot, so cannot tolerate wet or poorly drained soils. Best rootstock for harsher mountain growing conditions and recommended for use over a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. Plant trees 12-15 feet apart in rows spaced 16 – 20 feet apart. The virus-indexed EMLA clone was introduced in 1969-70.

Bud. 118 (Budagovsky 118): An excellent semi-dwarf rootstock with good disease resistance, Bud. 118 produces trees that are 95% the size of those on seedling rootstocks. Vigorous growth with a yield efficiency comparable to EMLA.111 and is particularly valuable on dry, sandy orchard sites. Bud. 118 is extremely winter hardy and is very well-adapted to various soil types. (We recommend this rootstock as a preferred replacement for EMLA 111.)

EMLA.111 (Malling-Merton 111): Productive rootstock best suited for heavy or poorly drained soils. Excellent drought resistance and also shows good resistance to woolly apple aphids. Good anchoring capability and rarely produces root suckers. Good rootstock for dry sandy soils in low rainfall areas. Average tree height will be 18-20 feet. Plant 16-18 feet apart in rows spaced 20 feet apart. The virus-indexed EMLA clone was introduced in 1969-70.

Dwarf Rootstock

Bud. 9 (Budagovsky 9): This Russian rootstock will produce a tree which will be 30-35% of a standard tree at maturity. Extremely winter hardy and resistant to crown rot. Somewhat resistant to fireblight, but susceptible to woolly aphids. Average tree height will be 8-10 feet and must be permanently staked. Plant 6-8 feet apart in rows spaced 10-15 feet apart.

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